|Glossary of Printing and Graphic Arts Terms
A transparent sheet placed over originals or artwork, allowing the
designer to write instructions and\or indicate a second color for
Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration
from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper,
permanent paper and thesis paper.
An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to
color produced by light falling onto a surface, as compared to subtractive
color. The additive primary colors are red, green and blue.
ISO paper size 210 x 297mm used for Letterhead.
Against the Grain
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as
compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross
grain. See also Grain Direction.
Pen-shaped tool that sprays a fine mist of ink or paint to retouch
photos and create continuous-tone illustrations.
Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given
to the service bureau, separator or printer. The change could be in
copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and
An offset printing plate having a treated surface in order to reduce
wear for extended use.
Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface of coated paper
as sheets leave a press. Also called dust, offset powder, powder and
Roughest finish offered on offset paper.
Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing press to
protect and enhance the printing underneath.
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended
for printing. Also called art.
Author's Alterations (AA's)
At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests to be made
concerning original art provided. AA's are considered an additional
cost to the client usually.
|- Top of Page -
(1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one
side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns
back-to-back with an image on the other side.
Copy pasted up on the mounting oard of a mechanical, as compared to
overlay art. Also called base mechanical.
Negative made by photographing base art.
The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate basis weight
in the United States and Canada.
In the United States and Canada, the weight, in pounds, of a ream
(500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size. Also called ream weight
and substance weight (sub weight). In countries using ISO paper sizes,
the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage
and ream weight.
Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs
or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.
Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating,
folding and trimming various printing projects.
Category of paperboard ranging in thickness from 15 to 48 points.
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that
receives the inked image from the plate and transfers it to the surface
to be printed.
Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.
A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank
page traditionally does not print a page number.)
Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
Sticking together of printed sheets causing damage when the surfaces
An enlargement, usually used with graphic images or photographs
Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all
colors show as blue images on white paper. Because 'blueline' is a
generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical
purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint,
blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position
proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke.
A description or commentary of an author or book content positioned
on the book jacket.
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that
is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and post
cards. Also called paperboard.
The main text of work not including the headlines.
Blocks of repetitive type used and copied over and over again.
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying.
Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper
and writing paper.
Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered.
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising
and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper
(also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel
paper, gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.
(1) a repeating registration problem in the printing stage of production.
(2) Customer unhappy with the results of a printing project and refuses
to accept the project.
General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight
between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index
cards, file folders and displays.
The term used to indicate work printed on one of a large sheet of
A photographic print created on bromide paper.
Carton of paper from which some of the sheets have been sold. Also
called less carton.
The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing and using a
Build a Color
To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new color. Such an
overlap is called a build, color build, stacked screen build or tint
Thickness of paper relative to its basic weight.
A dot or similar marking to emphasize text.
Burst Perfect Bind
To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines of gathered
signatures before affixing a paper cover. Also called burst bind,
notch bind and slotted bind.
Register where ink colors meet precisely without overlapping or allowing
space between, as compared to lap register. Also called butt fit and
To subcontract for a service that is closely related to the business
of the organization. Also called farm out. Work that is bought out
or farmed out is sometimes called outwork or referred to as being
out of house.
|- Top of Page -
C1S and C2S
Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.
To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers
(1) Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths
of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of
a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on
a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine
that detects missing signatures or inserts.
Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for reproduction according
to the technical requirements of the printing process being used.
Also called finished art and reproduction copy.
Business using a process camera to make photostats, halftones, plates
and other elements for printing. Also called prep service and trade
Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one
sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.
Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000
pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant
uses the term. Abbreviated CL.
Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos).
A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending
on the size of sheets and their basis weight.
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a casebound
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board
covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition
bind, hard bind and hard cover.
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished,
hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50
to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and magazines.
(1) Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because midtone dots
touch at two points, so look like links in a chain. (2) Generic term
for any midtone dots whose corners touch.
(1) Widely spaced lines in laid paper. (2) Blemishes on printed images
caused by tracking.
Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper
too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed images
look dusty. Also called crocking.
(1) Production copy of a publication verified by the customer as printed,
finished and bound correctly. (2) One set of gathered book signatures
approved by the customer as ready for binding.
Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline
trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.
Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems to neutral gray.
Also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation.
A mark used to indicate closing space between characters or words.
Usually used in proofing stages.
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process
Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34
or 40 lines centimeter).
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity
and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories
cast, gloss, dull and matte.
To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures
indicating exact position in the collating stage.
Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the colors of the
original scene or photograph.
Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type.
Also called shells.
In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one ink
color stops and another begins. Also called break for color.
Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image.
Color Control Bar
Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate
features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color
guide and standard offset color bar.
To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable
Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct
colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables.
Color Electronic Prepress System
Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and software designed
for image assembly, color correction, retouching and output onto proofing
materials, film or printing plates. Abbreviated CEPS.
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device,
such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing.
Brand name for an overlay color proof. Sometimes used as a generic
term for any overlay color proof.
Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array of colors found
(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone
color images into four halftone negatives. (2) The product resulting
from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing.
Also called separation.
Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and
Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities
or dot gain during four-color process printing.
Film (transparent) used as art to perform color separations.
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through
holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic
bind and GBC bind (a brand name).
Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements,
brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and
magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.
The second or additional flat(s) used when making composite film or
for two or more burns on one printing plate.
Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colors appears on
only one surface, not separated onto overlays. Composite art has a
tissue overlay with instructions that indicate color breaks.
Film made by combining images from two or more pieces of working film
onto one film for making one plate.
Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also
called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.
(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words
and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. (2) In graphic design,
the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.
Simulation of a printed piece complete with type, graphics and colors.
Also called color comprehensive and comp.
To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing
so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom.
Also called cure, mature and season.
Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame used to make
contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and plates. Also called platemaker
and vacuum frame.
All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades not
made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.
Business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays.
Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to
Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title.
Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front;
Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage
is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus,
folders and covers of paperback books.
Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a book to increase
strength of binding. Also called gauze, mull and scrim.
Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly
beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and
thrust. See also Shingling.
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced.
Also called cut marks and tic marks.
Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across
the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed
and gutter jump.
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure
good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Customer Service Representative
Employee of a printer, service bureau, separator or other business
who coordinates projects and keeps customers informed. Abbreviated
Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore
also the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the
roll of paper.
Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine
can also be used in scoring or creasing.
Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing
Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100.
One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.
|- Top of Page -
Technique of reducing the amount of storage required to hold a digital
file to reduce the disk space the file requires and allow it to be
processed or transmitted more quickly.
To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface. Also called
Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine
instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.
Instrument used to measure density. Reflection densitometers measure
light reflected from paper and other surfaces; transmission densitometers
measure light transmitted through film and other materials.
(1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed ink.
(2) Regarding color, the relative ability of a color to absorb light
reflected from it or block light passing through it. (3) Regarding
paper, the relative tightness or looseness of fibers.
Difference between the darkest and lightest areas of copy. Also called
contrast ratio, copy range and tonal range.
Technique of using a personal computer to design images and pages,
and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or imagesetter
to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate.
Device Independent Colors
Hules identified by wavelength or by their place in systems such as
developed by CIE. 'Device independent' means a color can be described
and specified without regard to whether it is reproduced using ink,
projected light, photographic chemistry or any other method.
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing.
To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.
Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper
via laser or ink-jet.
Chemical process of reproducing line copy and making halftone positives
ready for paste-up.
Dot created by a computer and printed out by a laser printer or imagesetter.
Digital dots are uniform in size, as compared to halftone dots that
vary in size.
Direct Digital Color Proof
Color proof made by a laser, ink jet printer or other computer-controlled
device without needing to make separation films first. Abbreviated
A letter fold at the side of one of the creases, an indentation occurs.
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are
on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called
dot growth, dot spread and press gain.
Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of the screen ruling
being used. There is no unit of measurement to express dot size. Dots
are too large, too small or correct only in comparison to what the
viewer finds attractive.
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices
such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters
and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.
Double Black Duotone
Duotone printed from two halftones, one shot for highlights and the
other shot for midtones and shadows.
To print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink.
To expose film or a plate twice to different negatives and thus create
a composite image.
A method of recording electronically (disk, CD, floppy) using a modified
frequency to allow more data storage.
Double Dot Halftone
Halftone double burned onto one plate from two halftones, one shot
for shadows, the second shot for midtones and highlights.
Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of the image. Doubling
may be caused by problems with paper, cylinder alignment, blanket
pressures or dirty cylinders.
Considered as "dots per square inch," a measure of output
resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate specified
for a job. Also called pulldown.
In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.
Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights by overexposure
during camera work.
Halftone in which contrast has been increased by eliminating dots
Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.
Using metal plates in the printing process, which are etched to .15mm
(.0006 in) creating a right reading plate, printed on the offset blanket
transferring to paper without the use of water.
To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.
Dual-purpose Bond Paper
Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or
xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper.
Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte.
Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.
Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.
Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives,
each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original.
Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets,
usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone
Offset press made for quick printing.
Brand name for photographic paper used to make blue line proofs. Often
used as alternate term for blueline.
|- Top of Page -
Electronic Front End (Electronic Composition)
General term referring to a prepress system based on computers.
Electronic Image Assembly
Assembly of a composite image from portions of other images and/or
other page elements using a computer.
Mechanical exclusively in electronic files.
(1) Publishing by printing with device, such as a photocopy machine
or ink jet printer, driven by a computer that can change the image
instantly from one copy to the next. (2) Publishing via output on
fax, computer bulletin board or other electronic medium, as compared
to output on paper.
To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called
cameo and tool.
Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films, printing plates
Emulsion Down/Emulsion Up
Film whose emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer) or up (toward
the viewer) when ready to make a plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED,
EU. Also called E up/down and face down/face up.
Encapsulated PostScript file
Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands. Abbreviated
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover.
Also called pastedown or end papers.
Smooth finish on uncoated book paper; smoother than eggshell, rougher
Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut
into its surface.
Abbreviation for envelope.
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer
post script information from one program to another.
Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost
the same. . Also called comparable stock.
Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid,
quotation and tender.
The individual performing or creating the "estimate."
To use chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film.
|- Top of Page -
Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge.
Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general
Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint of a second ink
color. Also called dummy duotone, dougraph, duplex halftone, false
duotone, flat tint halftone and halftone with screen.
Fast Color Inks
Inks with colors that retain their density and resist fading as the
product is used and washed.
Component of a printing press that moves paper into the register unit.
Soft woven pattern in text paper.
Side of the paper that was not in contact with the Fourdrinier wire
during papermaking, as compared to wire side.
Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-color process.
Thickness of film. The most common gauge for graphic arts film is
0.004 inch (0.1 mm).
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared
to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers
and graphic papers.
Screen with ruling of 150 lines per inch (80 lines per centimeter)
(1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming,
folding, binding and all other post press operations.
Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat
size. Also called trimmed size.
Refers to ability of film to be registered during stripping and assembly.
Good fit means that all images register to other film for the same
Costs that remain the same regardless of how many pieces are printed.
Copyrighting, photography and design are fixed costs.
(1) Any color created by printing only one ink, as compared to a color
created by printing four-color process. Also called block color and
spot color. (2) color that seems weak or lifeless.
Flat Plan (Flats)
Diagram of the flats for a publication showing imposition and indicating
Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as
compared to finished size.
Method of printing on a web press using rubber or plastic plates with
raised images. Also called aniline printing because flexographic inks
originally used aniline dyes. Abbreviated flexo.
To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with
ink is also called painting the sheet.
Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang
cover. Also called cut flush
Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that is the one side
of the end paper not glued to the case.
Used in making type more legible by lowering density of an image,
while allowing the image to show through.
To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.
Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped
with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.
A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.
With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur,
usually located at the top edges.
Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart.
Also called gatefold and pullout.
Folio (page number)
The actual page number in a publication.
Each side of a signature. Also spelled forme.
Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or printed
Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business forms. Also
called register bond.
Roller(s) that come in contact with the printing plate, bringing it
ink or water.
For Position Only
Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to
indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction.
In the case book arena, the binding process which involves folding,
rounding, backing, headbanding and reinforcing.
Trough or container, on a printing press, that holds fluids such as
ink, varnish or water. Also called duct.
Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent
ink from adhering to the nonimage area. Also called dampener solution.
Four-color Process Printing
Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to
simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full
color printing and process printing.
Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed
free of impurities, as compared to groundwood paper. Also called woodfree
A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle
folds to form a four page uncut section.
Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights to 100
percent coverage in its shadows.
Black separation made to have dots throughout the entire tonal range
of the image, as compared to half-scale black and skeleton black.
Also called full-range black.
|- Top of Page -
Proof of type from any Source, whether metal type or photo type. Also
called checker and slip proof.
(1) To halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure.
(2) To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously
on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called combination
A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping
Signatures assembled next to each other in the proper sequence for
binding, as compared to nested. Also called stacked.
Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint
(1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printed sheet where
it was not intended to appear. Chemical ghosting refers to the transfer
of the faint image from the front of one sheet to the back of another
sheet. Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint image appearing as
a repeat of an image on the same side of the sheet. (2) Phenomenon
of printed image appearing too light because of ink starvation.
Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book.
Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry
(e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish).
Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress)
such as the ink will dry without penetration.
General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers,
but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to
the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.
Graduated Screen Tint
Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly, not in
distinct steps. Also called degrade, gradient, ramped screen and vignette.
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during
manufacturing. Also called machine direction.
Grain Long Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet.
Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper.
Grain Short Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet.
Also called short grain paper and wide web paper.
Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).
The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing
on paper and other substrates.
Graphic Arts Film
Film whose emulsion yields high contrast images suitable for reproduction
by a printing press, as compared to continuous-tone film. Also called
litho film and repro film.
Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications
for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined,
convey a visual message.
Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more
clear or interesting.
Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with millions of tiny
wells that hold ink.
Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that accurately, reproduce
a neutral gray image.
Gray Component Replacement
Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta
films, made while color separating, with black ink. Abbreviated GCR.
Also called achromatic color removal.
Number of distinct gray tones that can be reproduced by a computer.
Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used by process
camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film
and plates. Also called step wedge.
Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products.
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered
signatures before perfect binding.
Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first
through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.
Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when
wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically.
The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).
In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding
|- Top of Page -
Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close
register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what
Black separation made to have dots only in the shadows and midtones,
as compared to full-scale black and skeleton black.
(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to convert the image
into halftone dots. (2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration
that has been halftoned and appears on film, paper, printing plate
or the final printed product.
Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light
into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.
Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called
halation. The halo itself is also called a fringe.
Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared to soft dots.
Mechanical consisting of paper and/or acetate and made using paste-up
techniques, as compared to electronic mechanical.
At the top of a page, the margin.
Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other
Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able to print coated
Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink
coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls
eye and fish eye.
Color reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations, as compared
to four-color process.
Photo whose most important details appear in the highlights.
Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones
Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine so it folds
at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine.
Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation, one of the color-control
options often found in software, for design and page assembly. Also
Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused
incomplete draw-down during contact platemaking, leaving an area of
weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.
Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing
jobs. Also called floor sheet.
A specific color such as yellow or green.
|- Top of Page -
The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink
Laser output device using photosensitive paper or film.
Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in
proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.
(1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet
passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a
press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through
Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the plate or blanket,
thus forming the image. Also called impression roller.
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting
an employee's name on business cards. Also called surprint.
Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each
other and to a standard density of neutral gray
Reservoir, on a printing press, that holds ink.
Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus
allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout.
Ink Jet Printing
Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled
nozzles. Also called jet printing.
Form (side of the press sheet) whose images all appear inside the
folded signature, as compared to outer form.
Department of an agency, business or association that does printing
for a parent organization. Also called captive printer and in-house
Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication
loose (not bound in).
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels,
having inked areas lower than noninked areas. Gravure and engraving
are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing.
Color proof of separations shown on one piece of proofing paper, as
compared to an overlay proof. Also called composition proof, laminate
proof, plastic proof and single-sheet proof.
Printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.
A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on
the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International
Standard Book Number.
|- Top of Page -
Job Lot Paper
Paper that didn't meet specifications when produced, has been discontinued,
or for other reasons is no longer considered first quality.
A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company
for use in tracking and historical record keeping.
Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production
schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Also called docket,
production order and work order.
A vibration machine with a slopping platform to even-up stacks of
|- Top of Page -
Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing. Hence the 'K'
(1) The screw that controls ink flow from the ink fountain of a printing
press. (2) To relate loose pieces of copy to their positions on a
layout or mechanical using a system of numbers or letters. (3) Alternate
term for the color black, as in 'key plate.'
Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size, shape and
location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding
Key Negative or Plate
Negative or plate that prints the most detail, thus whose image guides
the register of images from other plates. Also called key printer.
Kiss Die Cut
To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of self-adhesive
paper. Also called face cut.
Lightest possible impression that will transfer ink to a Substrate.
Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large
|- Top of Page -
Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate
the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run
against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick
stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid
and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy
(or lens) effect.
Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Portrait is opposite.)
Register where ink colors overlap slightly, as compared to butt register.
Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser
Ink that will not fade or blister as the paper on which it is printed
is used in a laser printer.
Lay Flat Bind
Method of perfect binding that allows a publication to lie fully open.
(Also known as Lay Flat Perfect Binding.)
The edge of a sheet of paper feeding into a press.
A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work
(direction, instructions) needed and desired.
Amount of space between lines of type.
One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.
Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business records. Also
called record paper.
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to
fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.
In North America, 8 1/2' x 11' sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.
Directions about a specific matter (illustrations) and how to use.
In regard to maps and tables, an explanation of signs (symbols) used.
Method of printing from raised surfaces, either metal type or plates
whose surfaces have been etched away from image areas. Also called
Book paper with basis weight less than 40# (60 gsm).
Substance in trees that holds cellulose fibers together. Free sheet
has most lignin removed; groundwood paper contains lignin.
Any high-contrast image, including type, as compared to continuous-tone
copy. Also called line art and line work.
Negative made from line copy.
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen
Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and
whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas may be coated with
water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon,
that repels ink.
Area on a mechanical within which images will print. Also called safe
A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes
a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to
create a "sole" entity symbol of that specific unit.
Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication
Proof of a halftone or color separation that is not assembled with
other elements from a page, as compared to composite proof. Also called
first proof, random proof, scatter proof and show-color proof.
Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copy, film, proofs,
plates and printing. Also called glass and linen tester.
Low Key Photo
Photo whose most important details appear in the shadows.
|- Top of Page -
Machine Glazed (MG)
Paper holding a high-gloss finish only on one side.
One of the four process colors.
(1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to
function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production
run. Also called setup. (2) Paper used in the makeready process at
any stage in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.
Order for paper that a mill makes to the customer's specifications,
as compared to a mill order or stock order.
Die that applies pressure during embossing or debossing. Also called
An author's original form of work (hand written, typed or on disk)
submitted for publication.
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Instructions written usually on a "dummy."
To prevent light from reaching part of an image, therefore isolating
the remaining part. Also called knock out.
Paper or plastic plate used on a duplicating press.
A form of a four-color-process proofing system.
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing
Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other copy complete with
instructions to the printer. A hard mechanical consists of paper and/or
acetate, is made using paste-up techniques, and may also be called
an artboard, board or paste-up. A soft mechanical, also called an
electronic mechanical, exists as a file of type and other images assembled
using a computer.
To bind using a comb, coil, ring binder, post or any other technique
not requiring gluing, sewing or stitching.
Color breaks made on the mechanical using a separate overlay for each
color to be printed.
Lines or patterns formed with dots creating artwork for reproduction.
Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.
Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose color and
gloss simulate metal.
In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots between 30
percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared to highlights and
Mil 1/1000 Inch
The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates are expressed
Phenomenon of droplets of ink being thrown off the roller train. Also
called flying ink.
A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing
instructions or direction.
Mostly used over phone lines, a device that converts electronic stored
information from point a. to point b.
Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are
made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo,
such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.
Paper size (7' x 10') and envelope shape often used for personal stationery.
Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also called sinkage. A mottled image
may be called mealy.
A specific type of glue used for books binding and personal pads needing
Printing in more than one ink color (but not four-color process).
Also called polychrome printing.
Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper in any specific size.
|- Top of Page -
Very light brown color of paper. May also be called antique, cream,
ivory, off-white or mellow white.
Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for
binding, as compared to gathered. Also called inset.
Gray with no hue or cast.
Paper used in printing newspapers. Considered low quality and "a
short life use."
Flaw in a photograph or halftone that looks like a drop of oil or
In the book binding process, a stage where air is expelled from it's
contents at the sewing stage.
Web press without a drying oven, thus not able to print on coated
paper. Also called cold-set web and open web.
Printing using lasers, ions, ink jets or heat to transfer images to
Light blue that does not record on graphic arts film, therefore may
be used to preprint layout grids and write instructions on mechanicals.
Also called blue pencil, drop-out blue, fade-out blue and nonrepro
Printing on products such as coasters, pencils, balloons, golf balls
and ashtrays, known as advertising specialties or premiums.
|- Top of Page -
Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to
paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing
on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic
of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
A specific lightweight type (kind) of paper usually used in the past
for air mail. Seldom used today (in the typewriter era).
(1) Not transparent. (2) To cover flaws in negative with tape or opaquing
paint. Also called block out and spot.
Open Prepress Interface
Hardware and software that link desktop publishing systems with color
electronic prepress systems.
Form (side of a press sheet) containing images for the first and last
pages of the folded signature (its outside pages) as compared to inner
Halftone in which background has been removed or replaced to isolate
or silhouette the main image. Also called knockout halftone and silhouette
Layer of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof. Acetate overlays
are used to separate colors by having some type or art on them instead
of on the mounting board. Tissue overlays are used to carry instructions
about the underlying copy and to protect the base art.
Color proof consisting of polyester sheets laid on top of each other
with their image in register, as compared to integral proof. Each
sheet represents the image to be printed in one color. Also called
celluloid proof and layered proof.
To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing
type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.
Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the
printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.
|- Top of Page -
One side of a leaf in a publication.
Total number of pages that a publication has. Also called extent.
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page
complete with elements such as headings, rules and folios.
In the book arena, the numbering of pages.
Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to spot color. The
painted sheet refers to the final product, not the press sheet, and
means that 100 percent coverage results from bleeds off all four sides.
One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One
panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels,
A printing plate made of strong and durable paper in the short run
offset arena (cost effective with short runs).
Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.
Any sheet larger than 11' x 17' or A3.
Chipboard with another paper pasted to it.
To paste copy to mounting boards and, if necessary, to overlays so
it is assembled into a camera-ready mechanical. The mechanical produced
is often called a paste-up.
Proofreader mark meaning printer error and showing a mistake by a
typesetter, prepress service or printer as compared to an error by
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to
the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue
bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft
cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind.
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single
pass. Also called duplex press and perfector.
On a "dummy" marking where the perforation is to occur.
Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small
dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter
(usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is approximately
0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.
Engraving done using photochemistry.
Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to make positive
paper prints of line copy and halftones. Often used as alternate term
for photostat. Abbreviated PMT.
Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to make positive
paper prints of line copy and halftones. Often used as alternate term
Phenomenon of ink pulling bits of coating or fiber away from the surface
of paper as it travels through the press, thus leaving unprinted spots
in the image area.
Artwork, used in a previous job, to be incorporated in a current job.
Small holes (unwanted) in printed areas because of a variety of reasons.
Technique of registering separations, flats and printing plates by
using small holes, all of equal diameter, at the edges of both flats
Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other
digital device. Also called pel.
Printing method whose image carriers are level surfaces with inked
areas separated from noninked areas by chemical means. Planographic
printing includes lithography, offset lithography and spirit duplicating.
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced
using a printing press.
(1) In quick printing, a process camera that makes plates automatically
from mechanicals. (2) In commercial lithography, a machine with a
vacuum frame used to expose plates through film.
Stripped negatives or positives fully prepared for platemaking.
Color that the customer considers satisfactory even though it may
not precisely match original samples, scenes or objects.
Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name
of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not
Abbreviation for photomechanical transfer.
(1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000 inch. (2)
Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12 pica and .013875 inch
An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite
Photocopy or PMT of a photo or illustration made to size and affixed
to a mechanical.
Film that prevents light from passing through images, as compared
to negative film that allows light to pass through. Also called knockout
To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of
Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress
functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau
prior to printing. Also called preparation.
Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared
to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.
Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before
authorizing full production to begin.
Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for
the job. Also called strike off and trial proof.
(1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on press, including
time required for makeready. (2) Time of day at which a printing job
goes on press.
Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.
Usually in the book arena, consecutive pages as they appear on a flat
Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to
Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image
from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory,
stencil, die or plate.
Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper
or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography
use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates.
Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called
Assembly of fountain, rollers and cylinders that will print one ink
color. Also called color station, deck, ink station, printer, station
Camera used to photograph mechanicals and other camera-ready copy.
Also called copy, camera and graphic arts camera. A small, simple
process camera may be called a stat camera.
Process Color (Inks)
The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow, magenta,
cyan and black.
Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press
and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and
proofs. Also called correction marks.
Round device used to calculate percent that an original image must
by reduced or enlarged to yield a specific reproduction size. Also
called percentage wheel, proportion dial, proportion wheel and scaling
Paper made in weights, colors and surfaces suited to books, magazines,
catalogs and free-standing inserts.
|- Top of Page -
Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer
and other professionals associated with a printing job and whether
the job meets those expectations.
(1) Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the size of the original
sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page signature. (2) Book made from quarto
sheets, traditionally measuring about 9' x 12'.
Printing using small sheetfed presses, called duplicators, using cut
sizes of bond and offset paper.
Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
|- Top of Page -
Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong percentage content
of "cotton rags."
Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the same ink
fountain and oscillating the ink rollers to make the colors merge
where they touch, producing a rainbow effect.
Raster Image Processor
Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information
for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.
Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would see the pages,
as compared to printer spread.
500 sheets of paper.
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
Products, such as fabrics, illustrations and photographic prints,
viewed by light reflected from them, as compared to transparent copy.
Also called reflex copy.
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other
printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates,
and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels
having inked areas higher than noninked areas. Relief printing includes
block printing, flexography and letter press.
Ability of a device, such as an imagesetter, to produce film or plates
that yield images in register.
General term for xerography, diazo and other methods of copying used
by designers, engineers, architects or for general office use.
Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape
or other medium.
An image, such as the GATF Star Target, that permits evaluation of
resolution on film, proofs or plates.
Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its
outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through
and form the image. The image 'reverses out' of the ink color. Also
called knockout and liftout.
Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.
Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it is written.
Also describes a photo whose orientation looks like the original scene,
as compared to a flopped image.
Printing press which passes the substrate between two rotating cylinders
when making an impression.
Round Back Bind
To casebind with a rounded (convex) spine, as compared to flat back
Mask on a mechanical, made with rubylith, that creates a window on
film shot from the mechanical.
Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.
Map or drawing given by a printer to a stripper showing how a printing
job must be imposed using a specific press and sheet size. Also called
press layout, printer's layout and ruleout.
|- Top of Page -
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine,
as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire
and stitch bind.
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged
or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.
Electronic device used to scan an image.
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and
accurately. Also called crease.
Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal line of the
press sheet. The common screen angles for separations are black 45
degree, magenta 75 degree, yellow 90 degree and cyan 105 degree.
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows
to print. Also called screen percentage.
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly
of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Number of rows or lines of dots per inch or centimeter in a screen
for making a screen tint or halftone. Also called line count, ruling,
screen frequency, screen size and screen value.
Color created by dots instead of solid ink coverage. Also called Benday,
fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone.
Placing signatures or inserts in magazines or catalogs according to
demographic or geographic guidelines.
Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock.
A publication only using text stock throughout.
A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable
of travel in the mailing arena independently.
Art with elements that print in the base color on one surface and
elements that print in other colors on other surfaces. Also called
Usually in the four-color process arena, separate film holding qimages
of one specific color per piece of film. Black, Cyan, Magenta and
Yellow. Can also separate specific PMS colors through film.
Printing method whose image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or
metal that allow ink to pass through some portions and block ink from
passing through other portions. Serigraphic printing includes screen
Business using imagesetters to make high resolution printouts of files
prepared on microcomputers. Also called output house and prep service.
Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet to the underside
of another as they lie in the delivery stack of a press. Also called
Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared to tint.
Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to midtones
Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press.
Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates,
then the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates. Also
called work and back.
Allowance, made during paste-up or stripping, to compensate for creep.
Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution. Also called stair
stepping and progressive margins.
To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to
saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.
Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times, to become
part of a book, magazine or other publication.
Compound mixed with paper or fabric to make it stiffer and less able
to absorb moisture.
Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned
between the "printed run" for a variety of reasons.
Halftones dots with halos.
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared
to a screen tint.
Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment
vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted
to a particular category of products.
Complete and precise written description of features of a printing
job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing
or binding method. Abbreviated specs.
Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of color.
Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail, as compared
to a diffuse highlight. Also called catchlight and dropout highlight.
Back or binding edge of a publication
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through
holes. Also called coil bind.
Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the same ink
fountain and printing them off the same plate. Split fountains keep
edges of colors distinct, as compared to rainbow fountains that blend
(1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in different
editions of a publication. (2) Printing of a book that has some copies
bound one way and other copies bound another way.
Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead
of delivered printed to the customer, as compared to waste.
Spot Color or Varnish
One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to
flood or painted sheet.
(1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual
or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of
an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called
Standard Viewing Conditions
Background of 60 percent neutral gray and light that measures 5000
degrees Kelvin the color of daylight on a bright day. Also called
Short for photostat, therefore a general term for an inexpensive photographic
print of line copy or halftone.
Statistical Process Control
Method used by printers to ensure quality and delivery times specified
by customers. Abbreviated SPC.
Step and Repeat
Prepress technique of exposing an image in a precise, multiple pattern
to create a flat or plate. Images are said to be stepped across the
film or plate.
Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for prompt delivery
from a merchant's warehouse.
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory
at a warehouse, as compared to a mill order.
Score created by pressing a string against paper, as compared to scoring
using a metal edge.
To assemble images on film for platemaking. Stripping involves correcting
flaws in film, assembling pieces of film into flats and ensuring that
film and flats register correctly. Also called film assembly and image
Alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to bond papers.
Also called sub weight.
In the book arena, hot die, foil or other means in creating an image
on a case bound book.
Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Color produced by light reflected from a surface, as compared to additive
color. Subtractive color includes hues in color photos and colors
created by inks on paper.
Subtractive Primary Color
Yellow, magenta and cyan. In the graphic arts, these are known as
process colors because, along with black, they are the inks colors
used in color-process printing.
Paper calendered using alternating chrome and fiber rollers to produce
a smooth, thin sheet. Abbreviated SC paper.
Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again on the same.
A book in a variety of forms, indicating specific stock in specific
colors in a specific thickness.
Abbreviation for specifications for web offset publications, specifications
recommended for web printing of publications.
|- Top of Page -
Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.
Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such as badges and
Tagged Image File Format
Computer file format used to store images from scanners and video
devices. Abbreviated TIFF.
Target Ink Densities
Densities of the four process inks as recommended for various printing
processes and grades of paper. See also Total Area Coverage.
Concerning a printing project's basic details in regard to its dimensions.
A standard layout.
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid
or linen. Some mills also use 'text' to refer to any paper they consider
top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.
Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the
color of underlying ink. Also called raised printing.
Initial ideas jotted on virtually anything in regard to initial concept
of a future project.
Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening
that specific color.
Usually in the book arena, adding an additional page(s) beyond the
normal process (separate insertion).
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.
Total Area Coverage
Total of the dot percentages of the process colors in the final film.
Abbreviated for TAC. Also called density of tone, maximum density,
shadow saturation, total dot density and total ink coverage.
Plate that accents or prints a color that four-color process printing
cannot reproduce well enough or at all. Also called kiss plate.
Service bureau, printer or bindery working primarily for other graphic
arts professionals, not for the general public.
Positive photographic image on film allowing light to pass through.
Also called chrome, color transparency and tranny. Often abbreviated
To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish,
over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry
Traps and Wet Traps.
The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the
finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
|- Top of Page -
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.
Technique of making color separations that increases the amount of
cyan, magenta or yellow ink in shadow areas. Abbreviated UCA.
Technique of making color separations such that the amount of cyan,
magenta and yellow ink is reduced in midtone and shadow areas while
the amount of black is increased. Abbreviated UCR.
Universal Copyright Convention (UCC)
A system to protect unique work from reproducing without knowledge
from the originator. To qualify, one must register their work and
publish a (c) indicating registration.
Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear
sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof.
Also called edge enhancement and peaking.
Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression
on a single sheet. "Two up" or "three up" means
printing the identical piece twice or three times on each sheet.
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet
|- Top of Page -
The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color. Also called brightness,
lightness, shade and tone.
Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.
Somewhat rough, toothy finish.
Brand name for high-contrast photographic paper.
Small area or room that is set up for proper viewing of transparencies,
color separations or press sheets. Also called color booth. See also
Standard Viewing Conditions.
Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
Halftone whose background gradually and smoothly fades away. Also
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to
Abbreviation for volatile organic compounds, petroleum substances
used as the vehicles for many printing inks.
|- Top of Page -
To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens,
and other press components.
Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready, printing or
binding operations, as compared to spoilage.
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing
from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Split of the paper as it travels through a web press, causing operators
to rethread the press.
Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through the press.
Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets
after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many
sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called
8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to dry trap.
(1) In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing an image on the
sheet behind it. (2) On a mechanical, an area that has been marked
for placement of a piece of artwork.
Side of the paper that rests against The Fourdrinier wire during papermaking,
as compared to felt side.
With the Grain
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared
to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.
Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as calendered
Intermediate film that will be copied to make final film after all
corrections are made. Also called buildups.
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured
An image that is backwards when compared to the original. Also called
flopped and reverse reading.
|- Top of Page -